The zemstvo (Russian: Земство, IPA: [ˈzʲemstvə], plural zemstva) was a form of local government that was instituted during the great liberal reforms performed in Imperial Russia by Alexander II of Russia. The idea of the zemstvo was elaborated by Nikolay Milyutin, and the first zemstvo laws were put into effect in 1864. After the October Revolution of 1917, the zemstvo system was shut down and replaced by a system of workers' councils.
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